paq'batlh 2nd Edition - Canon and New Words

This page lists a summary of new information revealed with the overhaul of the paq'batlh. The original messages which included this information are found on the page labeled paq'batlh news.

New Words and expressions

  • pal'ar - kinsperson, family member
  • loQHa' - considerably, appreciably

We also learned about the different ➞ moon phases.

Clarifications of Existing Words

  • yeq - does not take object or -chuq
  • no' - grammatically singular, inherent plural form of qempa' (i.e., like cha and peng)
  • qempa'QeH - fossilized, wouldn't be pluralized, but refers to a group of beings and takes plural verbal prefixes (e.g., nItlhej qempa'QeHwI').
  • neHHa' - not only (works like neH); chaH neHHa' wovmoH jul "the sun lit up not only them", i.e., it lit up them and also others.
  • tuQ[Ha']moH - don/doff, always means "on oneself". Use jom for putting clothes on someone else.
  • mej - direct object is place one is leaving, -vo' marks the starting point. X Damej, Yvo' bImej, Yvo' X Damej are all possible.
  • petaQ - is unrelated to taQ, normally takes *-pu'; -mey adds extra insult.

The word Hoch

Hoch after a noun means "all of X". nIn Hoch "all of the fuel", QeHDaj Hoch "all of his anger". Recall/compare:
  • Hoch before an explicitly plural noun means "every X" collectively:
    • Hoch tlhInganpu' "all Klingons", Hoch ngop "all plates".
  • Hoch before a noun which isn't explicitly plural means "each X" (individually):
    • Hoch tlhIngan "each Klingon", Hoch jengva' "each plate".
  • Hoch nIn and Hoch QeHDaj would be wrong (not countable), as is Qapla'meywIj Hoch (should be Hoch Qapla'meywIj for "all of my successes, collectively").

  • paq 'ay'mey / ngaS 'aplo' - contents of a book vs. contents of a box; they're different kinds of "contents"

So' "hide, cloak" and meQ "burn"

These are both intended to have the subject acting on the object. The example nuqDaq So'taH yaS in TKD has a bad translation, and really means "Where is the officer hiding [something]?" In normal usage, meQ means "burn, be on fire". However, due to the influence of mIQ, in food preparation contexts it can mean "burn, set on fire" or "be burnt".

ngIq X

picks out one thing out of a sequence of things; always implies there are or could be other Xs; grammatically singular, similar to Hoch X (where X is not explicitly plural); Hoch tlhIngan "each Klingon" (individual out of a group), ngIq tlhIngan "each Klingon" (focuses on each one, one at a time); the sequential sense comes from the way the world works, ngIq gholvaD vaghmaH QaS yInob "pay each player 50 forces" means if you have 100 forces and have to pay players A, B, and C in order, you would pay players A and B and then go bankrupt; ngIq tonSaw' lo' 'ej rIn may' "in a single move, the battle was done" picks out the finishing move which ended the battle.

Clarifications of Grammar

  • In comparatives, type 6 suffixes go on the verb pair: SoH ral law'law' Hoch ral puSlaw'.
  • -taHjaj is allowed under certain circumstances, even though TKD says that a type 7 suffix isn't allowed with -jaj, but it's unknown exactly what circumstances.
  • jang can be used as a verb of speech, like jatlh. jatlhlu' can be translated "it is said," "so they say," "as one says," and so on.
  • The prefix trick can be used for the third-person indirect object, if there is no possibility of confusing with a direct object. lujang = ghaHvaD jang.

net X vs. 'e' Xlu'

Multiple uses of -lu' in a complex sentence refer to the same indefinite subject. This explains some situations where 'e' Xlu' is used instead of net or where Xlu' isn't used where it looks like it could've been.
  • Heghlu'DI' mobbe'lu'chugh QaQqu' Hegh wanI': The one who dies is the one who is not alone.
  • yay chavlu' 'e' bajnISlu': The victory must be earned by the one who achieves it.
  • vImuHlu' net wuqHa': not 'e' wuqHa'lu' because that would imply the same subject for wuqHa' and muH.
  • batlh Heghlu'chugh noDnISbe' vay': not noDnISbe'lu' because that would imply the same subject for noDnISbe' and Hegh.

Still Unclear

  • It's still unclear how to do "indirect quotation". 'e' and net are not used with jatlh.
  • It's still unclear which pronoun to use for a mixed group (of beings capable of language and non-beings). Doesn't matter in practice because Klingon can do synecdoche and metonymy.

See also

References

This list was originally published on the KLI's website:
https://www.kli.org/about-klingon/new-language-information/paqbatlh-2nd-edition
Category: Canon    Latest edit: 23 Jun 2022, by KlingonTeacher    Created: 23 Jun 2022 by KlingonTeacher
 
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